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Classification and pattern of artificial graphite raw coke

Classification and pattern of artificial graphite raw coke

Classification and pattern of artificial graphite raw coke


Part One


At present, low sulfur petroleum coke is the major coke raw material of artificial graphite. Conventional power and energy storage, mostly using petroleum coke products; However, needle coke will be added and mixed if there are requirements for capacity, circulation and compaction. Petroleum coke is the main raw material for the production of graphite electrode. The finished product has good conductivity, oxidation resistance, good mechanical strength and elastic modulus, and is currently a better conductive material for electric furnace steelmaking.


The domestic coal series and oil series account for half of each other. The molecular formula of needle coke coal series is complex, and its performance will be a little worse than that of oil series, and its graphitization degree and capacity will be lower.


The domestic coal series and oil series needle cokes account for half of each, both of which are more than 1 million tons. The main coal series producers Hongte, Baowu and Xikemo have nearly 800000 tons of production capacity, which was released successively after the sharp rise of needle cokes prices in 2017; Before 2018, Jinzhou Petrochemical was the only domestic oil system needle coke. After that, Shandong Yida and Shandong Jingyang gradually developed. Shandong Lianhua, Weifang Fumei and Liaoning Bora were also newly put into production, with a total capacity of more than 1 million.


By 2025, needle coke production capacity is expected to reach 3 million tons.


On the overseas side, ConocoPhillips has two plants in the United States that supply local graphite electrodes. Only when the market is particularly good, a small amount of needle coke will flow into China; The UK factory has an annual production capacity of 275000 tons. It supplies the anode material market to China, with an annual production capacity of about 100000 tons; Korean enterprises only have POSCO; In Japan, there are Shuidao, JX, Mitsubishi and Nihon Mine, most of which are graphite electrodes for Showa Electric.JX has put a certain amount of needle coke into China. Mitsubishi and Nippon Mines have been in use in recent years, but the proportion is not high.


Part Two


The raw material of petroleum coke is vacuum residue. Coking gasoline, diesel oil and petroleum coke are produced through delayed coking. Petroleum coke is a kind of high-quality fuel, which is loose and porous and contains 8% - 15% volatile matter.


In terms of morphology, it can be divided into foam coke, sponge coke, shot coke, etc. According to the different sulfur content, the brands range from 1#A to 4#B. Generally speaking, petroleum coke with sulfur content less than 1% is called low sulfur coke, which can also be used on the negative electrode. Although the technology and theory are feasible, the cost is too high, and there are environmental problems related to sulfur emission in the graphitization process, which has not been used on a large scale.


In the long run, low sulfur petroleum coke supply is tight. Delayed coking involves pollution and is unlikely to continue large-scale production expansion. At present, most new petroleum coke production capacity is dominated by large oil refining projects, and most of the processed products are high sulfur coke, which cannot be used for negative electrode. At the same time, there is great uncertainty in the export or self use of large refinery delayed coking units and more supporting petroleum coke hydrogen production units.  


At present, the national policy focuses on low sulfur marine fuel. With the increasing demand for low sulfur marine fuel, the supply of low sulfur petroleum coke to the cathode will decrease. At present, the low sulfur coke in Fushun and Daqing is considered to be the best coke in the industry. Jinzhou Petrochemical and Dagang are new entrants, but the current output of these four companies cannot meet the demand for upstream and downstream anode materials. The development of new manufacturers requires cycle and technical verification, so the current supply is tight, which is also reflected in the price rise.


Compared with domestic Fushun and Daqing products, overseas coke has a higher sulfur content, which has a gap in electrochemical performance (the influence of crude oil). Therefore, the amount of overseas low sulfur coke is not used, except for some blending. 

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